This report places child labour in the context of a broader body of research on the detrimental effects of adverse childhood experiences on child development.
It explores the multiple factors affecting the severity of child labour - ie. the extent to which child labour causes (irreversible) harm - and discusses the implications. Drawing on over 150 empirical studies, the study covers:
- How child labour can cause harm
- An operational definition of the severity of child labour for the cocoa sector
- An overview of the practical implications for efforts to prevent and address child labour in the cocoa sector
The practical implications of this research can inform what we do to protect working children from harm and support them to reach their full potential; how to more effectively target support based on vulnerability and need; and how to measure progress in tackling child labour and its harmful effects.
Read the report: What makes child labour harmful and what does it mean for the cocoa sector?
Read the Executive Summary
Annex 1: Evidence of the effects of child work and other adverse childhood experiences, for different dimensions of adversity
Annex 2: Overview of research illustrating the role of time and timing in the emergence of negative outcomes during child development
Annex 3: Cross-cultural studies demonstrate how experiences during childhood result in the same effects, regardless of country and culture
Bibliography: What makes child labour harmful and what does it mean for the cocoa sector?